We used the baseline model to get the cheapest price advertised by Hyundai in Australia for the Kona electric and Kona petrol cars, and the UK price for the Kona Hybrid before converting the currency on 23/04/2021. The petrol Kona cost $28,990AUD, the electric cost $67,205AUD, and the Hybrid cost $42,942AUD to purchase. Costs include registration, where we used Queensland registration bands as the base registration on the engine of the vehicle. The electric and hybrid car cost $673 for 12 months of registration for the 2020-21 financial year, while the petrol car cost $744.45.7
The average lifespan was based on the average age of vehicles from the Australian Bureau of Statistics, which was 10.4 years as of Jan 2020.8
Petrol fill-up costs were calculated using the specs of the vehicle to determine its range, and the cost of petrol was estimated at $1.35AUD a litre for RON 91 fuel as this reflected a common price of petrol in Brisbane on 26/04/2021 using Compare the Market’s free fuel price comparison app.
The petrol version had annual refuelling set at $2,531.25AUD, while the hybrid’s fuel costs were estimated at $2,077.65AUD. The cost to recharge the electric version was based on an electricity tariff of 20 cents per kWh and using the full recharging time of 9 hours and 15 minutes. We also used an average figure of 15,000 kilometres driven per year and the car’s range to determine the number of recharges required to get a figure of $55.50AUD a year to recharge the car.
Average manufacturing emissions were 10.5 tonnes of CO2 for petrol engine vehicles. Both electric and hybrid vehicle batteries add an extra 3.2 tonnes on average to manufacturing emissions. This data was based on a study from manufacturing in China, which is one country where Hyundai vehicles are manufactured.9 For the purpose of the chart, the manufacturing emissions of the Kona hybrid and Kona EV were both rounded down to 13 tonnes. Annual emissions were based on Hyundai’s specifications for the Kona petrol and Kona hybrid.
Insurance was calculated using Compare the Market’s free comparison service, based on comprehensive insurance for a white 2020 model with no finance or hail damage, garaged in Brisbane and driven by a 31-year-old male with no previous claims in the past five years. We used the quotes available on 23/04/21 to calculate an average annual figure for the petrol and electric car and set the cost of insurance for the hybrid model in-between these two prices to provide an estimate, based on the fact the cost of the Kona hybrid purchase cost is between that of the petrol and electric version. Annual insurance premium for the electric cost $1,299AUD, the petrol version cost $939AUD, and annual insurance premium for the hybrid was set at $1,119AUD. While it is unrealistic to expect insurance costs to stay the same over an 18-year period we set them at a consistent price for the ease of comparison.
Parts and servicing costs were based on average figures from Budget Direct’s article Car Running Costs in Australia 202010 and the Electric Vehicle Council Mythbusting11 page to arrive at an annual maintenance cost of $764AUD for the petrol and hybrid car and $464AUD for the electric car. This was supported by earlier research in an article by Lawrence Fulton in the Applied Sciences journal in 2018, which found maintenance costs for electric cars were roughly half of that of hybrids.12
These figures provided an annual operating cost which was used in the table above:
- Electric: $2,491.50AUD
- Petrol: $4,978.70AUD
- Hybrid: $4,633.65AUD
For the USA costs and emissions chart, the Kona electric purchase price was $37,390USD, while the petrol was $20,500USD. The hybrid purchase price was calculated at $33,238USD after converting the UK price into $USD using the historical currency exchange rate on 23/04/2021. For registration, we selected the state of Pennsylvania as they have a simple annual registration fee of $38USD per year as of 13/05/2021.13
Based on average fuel prices from all 50 US states, we were able to get costs for refuelling in the USA. Once we had converted different measurements and currency, we obtained an average gasoline price of $2.87USD per gallon.14 Using the same methodology as Australia, the petrol Kona had an annual refuelling cost of $1076.24USD, and the Hybrid had a refuelling cost of $1,166.96USD per year. Using data from the Alternative Fuels Data Center, annual recharging costs for the Kona EV were $270USD, based on the size of its battery, recharging time and at a cost of $9USD per recharge.15
The cost of insurance used data from the American Automobiles Association, which gave an average figure of $1,087USD per year. This figure was applied to all versions of the Kona to keep calculations simple, as the insurance market and risks differ to those in Australia, though exact costs will vary and will likely change every year. The cost of servicing was based on data from Consumer Reports, which found that hybrids and EVs cost half as much per mile in repairs and maintenance compared to petrol cars.16 This provided an annual cost of $297.62USD for the Kona EV and hybrid, and $838.85USD for the petrol version.
These figures provided an annual USA operating cost which is shown in the table above:
- Electric: $1,674.62USD
- Petrol: $3,040.10USD
- Hybrid: $2,572USD
The figures used in the table are rough calculations based on available data and are intended as a guide and might not include every associated expense related to owning a car. Exact annual operational costs, such as the cost of registration, servicing or refuelling/recharging can change at any time. These calculations are also specific to the 2020 Hyundai Kona models and will differ for other vehicles based on their specs.